Disciplines & Approaches

Disciplines and approaches include research areas that cut across multiple diseases and conditions such as basic immunology, diagnostics, therapeutics, vaccines and medical countermeasures to prevent and treat the many infectious, immune-mediated, and allergic diseases. NIAID also supports research in many Diseases & Conditions.

Colorized scanning electron micrograph of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and a dead human neutrophil
Credit: NIAID

Scanning electron micrograph of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus during interaction with a human neutrophil

Microbes, collectively, include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. For the past 70 years, antimicrobial drugs, such as antibiotics, have been successfully used to treat patients with bacterial and infectious diseases.

Credit: NIAID

Virologist Kyle Rosenke, Ph.D., using a centrifuge inside a BSL-4 suite at the Rocky Mountain Laboratories Integrated Research Facility. A centrifuge rotor tool is in the foreground.

NIAID supports research and early development of medical countermeasures against terrorist threats from infectious diseases, radiation exposure and chemical threats to the civilian population.

A close-up image (gloved hand and test tube) of scientist studying varicella zoster virus (VZV), the cause of chickenpox and shingles.
Credit: NIAID

Varicella zoster virus DNA study in the NIAID Laboratory of Clinical Investigation's medical virology laboratory.

Research fields, such as genomics, proteomics, and systems biology, are creating a wealth of information about infectious and immune-mediated diseases. Through the use of advanced technologies, researchers are developing a clearer understanding of pathogens, disease, and host immunity.

Map of the world showing research locations
Credit: NIAID

The map identifies 123 countries with NIAID-funded activities in fiscal year 2018. Funding is concentrated in many of the countries located in North and South America, Europe, Southeast Asia, Australia, and Eastern and Southern Africa.

NIAID conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases. For more than 60 years, NIAID research has led to new therapies, vaccines, diagnostic tests, and other technologies that have improved the health of millions of people in the United States and around the world. NIAID is one of the 27 Institutes and Centers of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Credit: NIAID

Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a natural killer cell from a human donor. 

The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body from infection.

Image of a female Aedes mosquito.
Credit: NIAID

A female Aedes mosquito.

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), such as dengue, lymphatic filariasis, trachoma, and leishmaniasis, are called "neglected," because they generally afflict the world's poor and historically have not received as much attention as other diseases. NTDs tend to thrive in developing regions of the world, where water quality, sanitation, and access to health care are substandard. However, some of these diseases also are found in areas of the United States with high rates of poverty.

Third participant enrolled in VRC 207 receives a dose of the investigational NIAID/GSK Ebola vaccine
Credit: NIAID

A clinical trial participant receives a dose of an investigational Ebola vaccine at the NIH Clinical Center.

Vaccines stimulate the immune system to produce immune responses that protect against infection. Vaccines provide a safe, cost-effective and efficient means of preventing illness, disability and death from infectious diseases.

Photo of annopheles gambiae mosquito being injected with hemolymph for malaria study
Credit: NIAID

An Anopheles gambiae mosquito is shown being injected with hemolymph, the insect's primary circulatory fluid, as part of a malaria study.

Vectors, including insects and ticks, are capable of transmitting infectious disease pathogens among humans or between animals and humans. Diseases spread by vectors such as mosquitoes are a serious public health problem, affecting nearly half of the world’s population, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). NIAID is committed to conducting and supporting research to better understand the biology of vectors, how they transmit diseases, and how they find and interact with human hosts, with the goal of developing new and improved ways to prevent the transmission of diseases.